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Перевод с английского на русский

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Перевод с английского на русский
Перевод с английского на русскийУслуга
300 руб.
  • +79307831050
  • +79206322937



MarketinginTourism/МАРКЕТИНГ В ТУРИЗМЕ


In modem terms, marketing is defined as ‘the anticipation, man­agement, and satisfaction of demand through exchange process’. It can be considered as dynamic field that involves a wide variety of ac­tivities.


Marketing helps businesses generate profits, the lifeblood of economy. About half of each consumer dollar is spent on marketing activities. Tourism, or tourist travel, satisfies a person’s secondary needs arising when the primary needs (food, shelter, clothing) are met. There should be some tourist resources, that is individuals willing to buy a tourist voucher and undertake a tour. Every travel agency has to acquire a tourist patent to begin its activities providing it has enough managers, guides, interpreters, accountants, etc., and other resources to go in for tourist travel.


Tourism provides services in contradistinction to many trading companies providing goods and some non-profit organizations provid­ing ideas. It may not be obvious, but most developed countries make a lot of money exporting "invisibles" such as banking, accounting, and tourism. A tourist abroad, for example, "buys" hotel and restaurant services in the same way as a customer at home would buy an im­ported appliance. Movies and banking services have to be paid for just like bags of rice. There is a whole tourist industry in most developed countries.


Marketing scope is extremely wide. Among the areas in which it is involved here are marketing research, advertising, consumer analy­sis, social responsibility, and pricing. Management of demand in­cludes stimulation, facilitation, and regulation. The last one is needed when are peak periods for demand rather than balanced demand through the year. That is characteristic for tourism.


All marketing activities must be oriented toward creating and sustaining satisfying exchanges. Both the buyer and the seller must be satisfied. The first should be satisfied with goods, services or ideasobtained in the exchange. The seller should receive something of value, usually financial reward. A target market is a group of individuals for whom the company creates and maintains a marketing mix that specifically fits the needs and preferences of that group.


The development of a marketing strategy encompasses two steps: (1) selecting and analysis of a target market (2) creation and maintenance of a marketing mix consisting of products or services mix, distribution, promotion, and price.Let us take promotion. Its role is to communicate with individuals, groups, or organizations to facilitate exchange by informing and persuading them to accept some product or service. One should distinguish advertising campaign, which can be developed by personnel within the firm or in conjunction with advertising agencies, and publicity, that is the means of communication transmitted through a mass media at no charge. All marketing variables are highly interrelated.




Free Word-of-Mouth Marketing/Бесплатный маркетинг типа «сарафанное радио»


Each year every person in the United States spends about $600 to cover the costs of huge amount that businesses spend on advertising. A family of four spends about $2400 each year. Whether or not we want to spend this much is irrelevant. That’s what it costs businesses in the USA each year. And, this does not include the additional billions of dollars spent each year on point of purchase displays, other merchandising, packaging and product placement fees. What do we get for our $600 each year? Millions of radio and TV commercials, billboards, and advertisements in newspapers and magazines — we are bombarded with thousands of advertising messages (some of them wasteful) every day.


So many advertising messages rush at us daily, we cut through all that type (which often we do not trust) to get the essence of the messages we need. Word-of-mouth (which usually we trust) allows us to sort it all out. By using the principles of word-of-mouth marketing, these businesses and, in turn, you and I, could be spending a whole lot less cash each year.


Unique among other promotion methods, word-of-mouth is the only known promotion method that is both the means of marketing and the end of marketing. It is not only a dynamic method to communicate with consumers. Also, it is the goal to which most organizations strive. Vigorous positive word-of-mouth is the quintessential sign of success in a competitive global marketplace.


Managing your successful word-of-mouth marketing program should start by using three simple steps. As you consistently apply these three steps, you can embellish them with additional activities as you have time and resources. These three steps apply universally to any enterprise, business, or organization. With these three powerful elements, you will never be at a loss to know what should be doing to build positive word-of-mouth.


The three steps are:


1. FIND champion customers (and other loyal supporters),


2. INSPIRE these champions (opinion leaders), to spread your reputation,


3. THANK your champions when they bring you referrals.





Evelyn Metzger/ЭвелинМецгер

(San Francisco)/(Сан-Франсиско)


The business of travel has become the second largest industry in the United States of America.


This situation developed only in the second half of our current century. But it was actually in the last quarter that the enactment of deregulation in the travel industry pushed the business into its lofty position.


Indeed the airplane has been the instrument of growth, causing and allowing people to traverse great distances in such short periods of time never dreamed possible by earlier generations.


So, when the government opened the floodgates to the airlines, allowing them to dictate their own operating conditions, competition became rampant, and fares went down.


Many new airlines rushed into the marketplace only to fail and unfortunately create a business climate that even pulled down some of the old airlines, such as Pan American, World Airways, Eastern Airlines, and Western Airlines.


These were the pioneers of our airline industry. They are now history.


But from the chaos emerged airfares low enough to be within the reach of the middle class citizen.


So this form of transportation, originally available only for those fortunate few in the upper income bracket then become available to the mass market.


The average American now travels by airline far more often than the average citizens of most other countries. Our travel patterns are determined by needs and desires. Those of us working in the travel industry think of this superstation as refereeing to either “Business/Corporate Travel” or “Leisure/Vacation travel”.


This is further division perceived and that is “Domestic Travel” and “International Travel”.


Since my specialty is in the Leisure/Pleasure/Vocation market, this article will focus primarily in that area, although not exclude the importance of the Business Travel Agent.


The volume of airline tickets being sold in this day and the age has far exceeded the sales capabilities of the major airlines. If the airlines were to attempt to handle all ticket sales themselves it would be necessary to increase staff to the point of overwhelming expenses. Therefore, it has become necessary to rely on travel agencies to supply this service on a commission arrangement.





Having worked in the business travel market before graduating to the leisure market, I have concluded that the knowledge and expertise required for the Leisure Travel Agent is far more extensive and demanding. The business travelers' requirements as a rule, are less complicated than leisure travelers, simply requiring transportation and lodging in most cases.


This may seem to be an oversimplification, but it is true that the travel agent handling the business travelers arrangements often turns out to be just on ''order taker", since the traveler is most likely to know the airline and flight schedule that he prefers as well as the hotel he wishes to stay in, and he is probably well versed in the documentary requirements in the international travel.


In such circumstances, the traveler is not looking advice or counsel. He just wants fast and efficient service.


Very often, the travel agent has no personal experience in the area that he or she is booking for the business travel client.


And no matter there is no reason that he should have, as long as he is experienced in the airlines computer system.


Many agencies servicing business travelers conduct all transactions the airline computer, booking flights, hotels and cars, and then printing tickets and itineraries automatically.


Quite often the agent never comes face to face with the (illegible) with all negotiations being conducted by telephone, and most (illegible) with the traveler’s assistant or secretary.




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