Management in tourism Unit 1. Text1. The Tourist industry. Tourism is relatively new phenomenon in the worl
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Management in tourism
Unit 1. Text1. The Tourist industry.
Tourism is relatively new phenomenon in the world. Tourism has been one of the fastest growing industries in recent years. Since being away from home is a necessary component of tourism, its development as a mass industry depends on modern means of rapid and inexpensive transportations. The automobile and airplane in still more recent times have also become major modes of transportation for recreative purposes. Industrialization has produced the other conditions that are necessary for tourism. Among them is creation of the large number of people with an amount of disposable income – income above and beyond what is needed for basic expenses such as food, shelter, clothes and taxes. Another important condition is urbanization, the growth of large cities. Residents of big population centers take more holiday trips than residents of rural areas.
The importance of industrialization can be seen from the fact that 75% of international tourists come from the industrialized countries. It should be noted that tourism benefits not only airlines, hotels, restaurants and taxi drivers, but also many commercial establishments and even the manufacturers of such varied items as sunglasses, video cameras and swimming clothing.
One of the principal reasons for encouraging a tourist industry in many developing countries is the so-called multiplied effect of the tourist dollar. Another attraction of the tourist industry is that it is labor intensive because it requires a large number of workers in proportion to the people who are served.
The global boom in tourism is already having positive impact on the local economy – and the outlook for the future is even better, with Russia expected to be the world’s fastest-growing tourism market.
Tourism continues to provide people with choice of a variety of occupations that require many different kinds of skills. No matter what aspect of the industry one may work in the final result of the effort is should be satisfied customer who remembers his vacation or his trip with pleasure.
So, who is a tourist? A tourist is a person who is visiting some place other than his usual residence for more than 24 hours. A tourist is distinguished by the length of his trip from the excursionist who is away from his residence for less than 24 hours, or at most a weekend.
Tourism is not a single industry, but rather a group of related enterprises, that are joined together in a common purpose of providing services for the travelling public. Among them are transportation companies – air, ship, rail and bus, the accommodation companies – hotels, motels, camping grounds and marinas, catering services – restaurants, bars, night clubs and food stores, and the wide variety of stores and entertainment, that contributes to the amusement of the tourist.
To exceed -превышать
Modern means – современныесредства
Rapid – быстрый
Disposableincome – свободные средства, средства, превышающие прожиточный минимум
Urbanization – рост городов, урбанизация
Ruralareas – сельские районы
Entertainment - развлечения
Ethics in tourism
To consider what is ethics in tourism and what problems can be connected with it, first of all it is necessary to understand, what is the definition of ethics in tourism. Ethics in tourist industry is dictated by the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism (GCET), which is a comprehensive set of principles, designed to guide key-players in tourism development. In the other words these are rules, which cover the economic, social, cultural and environmental components of travel and tourism.So, ethics for tourists and for touristic organizations mean thinking about the consequences of your actions as a tourist on the environment, local people and local economy.Such question as ethic was not a point of discussion, however in recent years tourism organizations are beginning to realize, that promoting their ethical image can be good business and beneficial for them, as it potentially increases company’s profits, management effectiveness, public image and employee relations. Also it attracts clients to use their services again and again.
I personally think that ethics in tourism is very important factor, which can help touristic industry to develop rapidly and on the other hand it can be safe for countries, which accept tourists. In recent years quantity of tourists increased dramatically, there are almost no countries, which can’t be reached with the help of airplane, rail or ship. And ethical behavior of tourists and tourist companies is very important, as there are a lot of cases when non-ethical behavior brings harm to the local countries, which is sometimes uncorrectable. For example in some parts of India women have to walk for miles for water because underground water is siphoned off by hotels. Farmers in Indonesia have been imprisoned for protesting about losing their land to tourism development.
There are, however people which disagree with this. There is always one strong argument from their side for such kind of tourism,that it is obviously provides jobs, especially in poor countries, and foreign exchange. These are the two big turn-ons for any government, and a lot of political processes are always involved. Some countries have good additional profit from touristic industry, which they are not ready to refuse.
But still there is another side of it. For example, a waiter in the Gambia - a big tourist destination for Europeans and especially British - will probably get $1 a day for his work. Tourists which come to the foreign country, especially in Asian countries, usually book their holiday with foreign tour operator, fly with foreign airlines, stay in foreign-owned hotel and consume foreign imported food – so, in fact, they bring very little income to the local economy and country, but take a lot from it.
So, what is the solution? In recent times very popular became such thing as ecotourism or green tourism, which from ethical side I like best. It has some nature or conservation factor, and also it somehow protects local countries from harm, which is usually brought by large group of tourists.What we can see on a general level, and which is quite promising,that there is an increasing demand for holidays that both protect the environment and benefit local people more.Ethical tourism world-wide is of course, not something that can just happen overnight - especially when touristic industry is growing so quickly and controlled by some of the world's largest multinational corporations. Big changes have to happen in the way governments plan tourism and support it, the way tour operators operate tourism, and the way local people are involved in and benefit from it. But at least existence of it gives hope, that if there is a demand, it can develop during the years and become more and more beneficial. One thing is clear-if we want to enjoy our holidays – something definitely has to change.
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